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• Pranav Nandurkar

# Do you know : How the mathematics was born and grown up?

Updated: Jul 6, 2019

Human beings from our earliest beginnings has showed the track of mathematics over 30,000 years ago. Early paleolithic people kept track of the passing seasons and changes of weather for planting to represent passing of time they carved tally marks on cave walls or slashed tallies on bones warder stone, each tally stood for one but this was difficult when it came to large scale so symbols took palce for groups of objects each symbol would represent a group of objects. Sumerian clay stones have been found that date to the fourth millonnium BC a small clay cone was used for one,a playball was used for tens and a large cones stood for sixty written records from around 3300BC show that babylonians inscribed amounts on clay tablets with a reed they used a nail shape for one and a v on its side for tens. The early Romans created the number system that we even see today (X for ten and I for one ). Beginning in the 6th century BC with the Pythagoreans, the Ancient Greeks began a systematic study of mathematics as a subject in its own right with Greek mathematics. Around 300 BC, Euclid introduced the axiomatic method still used in mathematics today, consisting of definition, axiom, theorem, and proof. From the notched bones of early man to the mathematical advances brought about by settled agriculture in Mesopotamia and Egypt and the revolutionary developments of ancient Greece and its Hellenistic empire, the story of mathematics is a long and impressive one. Greek mathematician Archimedes is widely considered by many to be the "father of mathematics." He is regarded as one of the leading scientists in classical antiquity and is credited with designing numerous innovative machines, including the screw pump and siege engines. In 1650 BC – Rhind Mathematical Papyrus, copy of a lost scroll from around 1850 BC, the scribe Ahmes presents one of the first known approximate values of π at 3.16, the first attempt at squaring the circle, earliest known use of a sort of cotangent, and knowledge of solving first order linear equations

Before the modern age and the worldwide spread of knowledge, written examples of new mathematical developments have come to light only in a few locales. From 3000 BC the Mesopotamian states of Sumer, Akkad and Assyria, together with Ancient Egypt and Ebla began using arithmetic, algebra and geometry for purposes of taxation, commerce, trade and also in the field of astronomy and to formulate calendars and record time. The most ancient mathematical texts available are from Mesopotamia and Egypt - Plimpton 322 (Babylonian c. 1900 BC), the Rhind Mathematical Papyrus (Egyptian c. 2000–1800 BC) and the Moscow Mathematical Papyrus (Egyptian c. 1890 BC). All of these texts mention the so-called Pythagorean triples and so, by inference, the Pythagorean theorem, seems to be the most ancient and widespread mathematical development after basic arithmetic and geometry. Indians too had their contribution in growth of maths. The number system invented by the Indians was a combination of 10 digits. It is a place-value system, which means a zero is necessary for arithmetic operations. The Italian mathematician Fibonacci, also known as Leonardo Pisano Bigollo, introduced the Arabic numbers to Europe in the 12th century. Mathematics in India was emerged in the Indian subcontinent from 1200 BC] until the end of the 18th century. In the classical period of Indian mathematics (400 AD to 1200 AD), important contributions were made by scholars like Aryabhata, Brahmagupta, Bhaskara II, and Varāhamihira. The decimal number system in use today] was first recorded in Indian mathematics. Indian mathematicians made early contributions to the study of the concept of zero as a number, negative numbers, arithmetic, and algebra.] In addition, trigonometry] was further advanced in India, and, in particular, the modern definitions of sine and cosine were developed there. A later landmark in Indian mathematics was the development of the series expansions for trigonometric functions (sine, cosine, and arc tangent) by mathematicians of the Kerela school in the 15th century CE. Their remarkable work, completed two centuries before the invention of calculus in Europe, provided what is now considered the first example of a power series (apart from geometric series). Excavations at Harappa, Mohenjo-daro and other sites of the Indus Valley Civilisation have uncovered evidence of the use of "practical mathematics". The people of the Indus Valley Civilization manufactured bricks whose dimensions were in the proportion 4:2:1, considered favourable for the stability of a brick structure. They used a standardised system of weights based on the ratios: 1/20, 1/10, 1/5, 1/2, 1, 2, 5, 10, 20, 50, 100, 200, and 500, with the unit weight equaling approximately 28 grams (and approximately equal to the English ounce or Greek uncia). They mass-produced weights in regular geometrical shapes, which included hexahedra, barrels, cones, and cylinders, thereby demonstrating knowledge of basic geometry.

Further more and more changes took place which led to development of maths and which termed it as modern mathematics. Many consider René Descartes to be the father of modern mathematics and modern philosophy. He invented the cartesian coordinate system, which established the first systematic link between Euclidean geometry and algebra. Likewise further inventions stood place and nowadays each and everything relates with maths and its acknowledgement. And this is what the roots of maths had their growth and will always continue.

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