• Pranav Nandurkar

Do you know: Where did it all begin - The Internet

It all began when efforts were made by the researchers mainly from the United Kingdom and France to build an interconnected computer network. In the '60s, computers were large and immobile, which made it difficult to store and use all the information stored on them, one had to travel all the way to access the information, so it was highly needed to build an interconnected system of networks. Speaking of which, the Cold War's launch also sparked the development of the ARPANET. Its creation became the foundation for the creation of the Internet.

ARPANET or the Advanced Research Projects Agency Network directed by Robert Taylor and managed by Lawrence Roberts was a network that carried out research related to the development of the Internet. Its distributed control system and the TCP/IP protocol suite were among the first technologies that became known as the Internet. ARPA projects led to the development of various protocols for internetworking, which allowed multiple networks to be joined into a single network. Bob Kahn, at ARPA, and Vint Cerf, at Stanford University, published research in 1974 that evolved into the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and Internet Protocol (IP), the two protocols of the Internet protocol suite.

ARPA's primary mission was funding cutting-edge research and development, not running a communications utility, so now after successfully running for many years, it looked for another agency to hand off the network to. Eventually, it was handed to the Defence Communication Agency. The networks based on the ARPANET were government-funded and therefore restricted to noncommercial uses such as research; unrelated commercial use was strictly forbidden. This initially restricted connections to military sites and universities.

The National Science Foundation (NSF) is an independent agency of the United States government that supports fundamental research and education in all the non-medical fields of science and engineering. In the early 1980s, the National Science Foundation (NSF) funded national supercomputing centers at several universities in the United States and provided interconnectivity in 1986 with the NSFNET project. The NSFNET was a program to promote advanced research and education networking in the United States.

Until 1989, the National Science Foundation permitted only government agencies and universities to use the network, when the first commercial Internet service provider emerged. By 1991, the NSF removed restrictions on access and the commercial ISP business grew rapidly. The ARPANET was decommissioned in 1990 and NSFNET was decommissioned in 1995 when it was replaced by backbones operated by several commercial Internet service providers.

The history of NSFNET was overlapped by the launch of the World Wide Web in 1991 by Tim Berners-Lee and colleagues at CERN, the European Organisation for Nuclear Research, in Geneva, Switzerland. It is often mistaken as the Internet itself, but the Web is a service that operates over the Internet, linking hypertext documents into an information system, accessible from any node on the network. From here after a great revolution began where we could see electronic mails, online shopping sites, social networking sites, video chat, blogs, and never-ending advancements in it. And this is how the new era of the Internet took place.